Thursday, January 30, 2020
Settling the Northern Colonies Essay Example for Free
Settling the Northern Colonies Essay The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Martin Luther . He declared that the Bible alone was the source of Gods words. He started the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin He spelled out his doctrine in 1536 called Institutes of the Christian Religion. He formed Calvinism. King Henry VIII formed the Protestant Church. There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly. These people were called Puritans. A tiny group of Puritans, called Separatists, broke away from the Church of England. King James I had them exiled from England. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth Separatists in Holland settled in Plymouth Bay in 1620. Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact. This was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to agree to the majority under the regulations agreed upon. It was signed by 41 males. It was the first attempt at a government in America. In the Pilgrims first winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of the 102 survived. In 1621, there was the first Thanksgiving Day in New England. William Bradford- elected 30 times as governor of the Pilgrims. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned the anti-Puritan persecutions of the Archbishop William Laud. In 1629, a group of non-Separatist Puritans secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company During the Great Migration of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England for America. Most of them were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies. John Winthrop- the Bay Colonys first governor. Building the Bay Colony Governor Winthrop of the Bay Colony did not like Democracy. The freemen annually elected the governor and his assistants and a representative assembly called the General Court. Visible Saints was another name for the Puritans. John Cotton- a very devoted Puritan. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth Anne Hutchinson- challenged the Puritan orthodoxy; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of her challenges to the Church. Roger Williams- Salem minister who challenged the Church; Separatist; banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Rhode Island Sewer Roger Williams fled to the Rhode Island area in 1636. He then established religious freedom for all kinds of people. New England Spreads Out Hartford and Connecticut founded in 1635. A group of Boston Puritans came to the Hartford area lead by Reverend Thomas Hooker. In 1639, the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted a document known as the Fundamental Orders. New Haven was established in 1638. In 1641, New Hampshire was taken by the Massachusetts Bay. The king took it back and made New Hampshire a royal colony in 1679. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence In 1643, 4 colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation Each colony had 2 votes, regardless of size. King Charles II gave rival Connecticut in 1662 a sea-to-sea charter grant, which legalized the squatter settlements. In 1663, the outcasts in Rhode Island received a new charter, which gave kingly sanction to the most religiously tolerant government. In 1684, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys charter wastaken away by London authorities. Andros Promotes the First American Revolution In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created by royal authority. In 1688 it was expanded to New York and East and West Jersey. Sir Edmund Andros He established headquarters in Puritanical Boston. Andros stopped the town meetings In 1688-1689, the people of old England engineered the Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution. They dethroned Catholic James II and enthroned the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands, the Dutch-born William III and his English wife, Mary, daughter of James II. In 1691, Massachusetts was made a royal colony. There was unrest in New York and Maryland from 1689-1691. Old Netherlands at New Netherland Late in the 16th Century, the Netherlands fought for and won its independence from Catholic Spain with the help of England. In the 17th Century, the Dutch (the Netherlands) became a power. Golden Age. It fought 3 great Anglo-Dutch naval battles. The Dutch Republic became a leading colonial power, with by far its greatest activity in the East Indies. The Dutch East India Company was nearly a state within a state and at one time supported an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships, 40 of them men-of-war. This company hired an English explorer, Henry Hudson, to seek great riches. He sailed into the Delaware Bay and New York Bay in 1609 and then ascended the Hudson River. He filed a Dutch claim to a wooded and watered area. The Dutch West India Company was less powerful than the Dutch East India Company, and was based in the Caribbean. It was more interested in raiding than trading. In 1628, in raided a fleet of Spanish treasure ships and stole $15 million. The company established outposts in Africa and Brazil. In 1623-1624, the Dutch West India Company established New Netherland in the Hudson River area. It was made for its quick-profit fur trade. The company also purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians for worthless trinkets. The island encompassed 22,000 acres. New Amsterdam, later New York City, was a company town. The Quakers were savagely abused. Dutch Residues in New York In 1664, the Dutch were forced to surrender their territory (New Netherland) to the English when a strong English squadron appeared off the coast of New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam was named New York, after the Duke of York. Penns Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania A group of dissenters, commonly known as Quakers, arose in England in the mid-1600s. Officially, they were known as the Religious Society of Friends. Quakers were especially offensive to the authorities, both religious and civil. They refused to support the Church of England with taxes. William Penn was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660. In 1681, he managed to secure from King Charles II an immense grant of fertile land, in consideration of a monetary debt owed to his deceased father by the crown. The king called the area Pennsylvania. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies The middle colonies New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, were known as the bread colonies because of their heavy exports of grain. These colonies were more ethnically mixed than any of the other colonies. The people were given more religious tolerance than in any other colonies. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1706. He moved to Philadelphia at the age of 17.